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Criminal prosecution in the Russian criminal trial: kinds and forms

Keywords:

A.M. Naumov


The article reviews the types and the forms of the criminal prosecution currently practiced in the Russian Federation. It is figured out the following types of criminal prosecution: private criminal cases, public-private prosecution cases, and public prosecution cases. The main forms of criminal prosecution in pre-trial phases of judicial proceedings are leveling an accusation and raising a suspicion. The author suggests the division of the criminal prosecution’s forms in judicial phases into the forms depending upon selected categories of citizens, against whom the criminal cases are initiated; and into the forms depending upon the trial court hearing. The forms of criminal prosecution per criminal cases against selected categories of citizens can include: 1) criminal prosecution with regard to minors or under-age persons, with relevant specifics stipulated by Chapter 50, UPK RF; 2) criminal prosecution with regard to persons committing offenses, while being in the state of insanity, or persons breaking into a condition of psychiatric frustration following their committing some offenses, with any punishment under Article 51, UPK RF, thereby being impossible to order or execute; 3) criminal prosecution with regard to selected categories of persons listed under Section 1, Article 447, UPK RF (members of the State Duma and Federation Council, prosecutors, judges, etc.), with relevant proceedings pursued in keeping with the rules stipulated by Article 52, UPK RF. The criminal prosecution forms, depending upon the trial court hearing procedures, can include: 1) criminal prosecution in the course of trial court hearings carried out in keeping with the standard procedures stipulated by Chapters 33-39, UPK RF; 2) criminal prosecution featuring a special sequence of steps made to arrive at a court judgment, with the defendant consenting to the charges leveled against him/her and the relevant proceedings done in keeping with Chapter 40, UPK ; 3) criminal prosecution featuring a special sequence of steps made to arrive at a court ruling, with a plea bargain made before the trial and the relevant proceedings done in keeping with the rules stipulated by Chapter 40.1, UPK RF; 4) criminal prosecution per criminal offenses examinable by magistrates or JPs, with the relevant proceedings done in keeping with Chapter 41, UPK RF; 5) criminal prosecution per criminal offenses triable by a jury, with the relevant proceeding done in keeping with Chapter 42,UPK RF. Criminal prosecution begin and end points are defined and the «criminal prosecution» notion is featured in the article.
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