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Development of legislation about criminal investigation in soviet period in Russia

Keywords:

A.M. Naumov – Ph.D. (Yurid.), the Russian, Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (Vladimir branch). E-mail: Naumov@vfrags.ru


The author of the article analyses the development of the Russian legislation on criminal prosecution in Soviet period (1923-1959). The legislation of this period has several main features. Firstly, it is an implementation of the reduced time-frames of preliminary investigation into some kind of crimes like counter-revolutionary crimes. Secondly, it is an implementation of the reduced time-frames of court proceedings into such cases. Thirdly, it is an abrogation of adversarial principle into these cases - causes come before the court without involving litigants. Fourthly, a defendant has no right of cassation appeal and remission. Fifthly, judgments of supreme measure of punishment enforce immediately. We have observed the tendency of extension of military court’s jurisdiction in the period of Civil war as well as during the Great Patriotic war. Also, it is appropriate to provide some comment concerning the other type of exceptions to legal procedures that is procedural powers’ delegation to law enforcement authorities. The other exception is an extension of the jurisdiction of the Criminal Procedure Code of R.S.F.S.R to the soviet republics. We couldn’t miss the fact that illicit investigative technique’s practices, employment a heavy-handed approach to a defendant, non- rest-sleeping interrogations were extended. Summing all this facts it is seen that acts of torture as a part of inquisitional form of criminal procedure have occurred. The extremely important moment characterizing this period is ascendance of communist party over criminal prosecution.
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