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Microwave imaging of biological tissues


L.N. Anishchenko - Ph.D. (Eng.), Senior Research Scientist, Research Section of Scientific and Educational Complex «Basic Sciences», Bauman Moscow State Technical University
A.A. Prokhorova - Student, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bauman Moscow State Technical University

This paper presents the results of mathematical simulation carried out to confirm the possibility of using microwave imaging for the detection of breast tumors. In the work the software designed for the numerical solution of electromagnetic problems using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method was used. The two-layered mathematic model was described. The model was a paral-lelepiped with dimensions 200×200×103 mm – mimicking the skin and the normal breast tissues, with the inclusion of a sphere - malignant neoplasm of breast tissue, the diameter and depth of which had been varied. The simulation was performed at three frequencies 6.6, 7.0 and 7.4 GHz. The dielectric properties of biological tissues such as conductivity and permittivity were set up to be constant.
It was shown that in the frequency range 6.6-7.4 GHz the magnitude of the electric field strength is equal to 5% from the medium level, so that further examinations were conducted at frequency 7 GHz. Furthermore we defined that it is possible to detect inclusions of a diameter of 5 mm up to maximum depth of 8.5 mm. For inclusions with diameters of 4 and 2 mm the amplitude oscillations were equal to 0.5% from the medium level, and were not informative. While for inclusion of 5 mm diameter, the am-plitude oscillations were equal to 5% from medium level. The simulation with replacement of the inclusions confirmed that the lo-cation of inclusions in the model did not affect the results. The resolution of the proposed method for inclusions with 10 mm diameter and depth up to 8 mm was equal to 20 mm. Since the distance between the centers of inclusions was less than 18mm, one cannot speak about the number of detected inclusions.
The results of the simulation of a two-layer phantom confirmed that microwave imaging is suitable for detecting neoplasms and dielectric inhomogeneities of 5 mm diameter and bigger in biological tissues. In the further work it is proposed to simulate the matching medium, which will allow reducing the reflection from the surface of the phantom and will increase the efficiency of the microwave visualization method.

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