D.V. Kutuzov – Ph.D.(Eng.), Associate Professor, Department «Communications», Astrakhan State Technical University
A.V. Osovsky – Ph.D.(Eng.), Associate Professor, Main Research Scientist, LLC «Future Engineering Lab» (Astrakhan)
D.V. Starov – Senior Lecturer, Department «Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Automation», Astrakhan State Technical University
E.A. Motorina – Research Engineer, LLC «Future Engineering Lab» (Astrakhan)
In our study, we looked at the problems of switching systems design that are used in high-speed routers of 5G communication systems. From analysis of services and principles embedded in 5G technology, we concluded that the architecture of such routers will be close to the structures used in the network-on-chip technology (NoC). This technology assumes that each system unit (IP core) has its own communication interface, and all units communicate each other using a spatial switch. In this article, we propose to decentralize the switching matrix control using parallel packet switching in order to increase system performance.
In the paper we investigated the problems of building switching systems that are used for high-speed routers of 5G communication systems. From the analysis of services and principles embodied in 5G technology, we concluded that the architecture of such routers will approach the structures used in the network-on-chip technology (NoC). This technology assumes that each system unit (IP core) has its own communication interface, and all units communicate with each other through a spatial switch. The NoC network has a regular structure. Network clients are IP cores that use network interfaces (NI) to communicate with each other. Network Interface Module (NI) converts client-generated data packets into fixed-length fragments – flits. Flits associated with a data packet consist of a header, a tail, and an intermediate body between them. All such an array of flits will be redirected to a destination from one router to another, and so on. A typical solution is that each router has five input ports and five output ports, usually corresponding to the north, east, south, and west directions, as well as a local processing element. Each port will connect to a different port on the neighboring router through a set of physical channels. The function of the router is to route incoming flits from each input port to the corresponding output port, and then to final destinations.
To implement this feature, the router has an input buffer for each input port, a 5×5 switch for redirecting traffic to the desired output port, and control logic to ensure proper routing. NoC functions can be divided into several levels: application, transport, network, channel and physical. The NoC router must contain both software and hardware to support these functions. The performance of the NoC communication architecture is largely determined by the flow control mechanism. Adding buffers to the network greatly improves the efficiency of the flow control mechanism, since the buffer can share the distribution of adjacent channels.
The article presents the structural schemes of engineering solutions that allow to improve the performance of spatial switching systems, in particular, to improve the switching structure based on the multiplexer. In addition, the article presents the NoC topology, presents the architecture of the NoC internal router, the structure of routers based on end-to-end flow control and virtual channel flow control. As a solution to improve system performance, it is proposed to decentralize the switching matrix control using parallel packet switching.
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