S.V. Notova –
Dr.Sc. (Med.), Professor, First Deputy Director, Federal Research Center for Biological Systems and Agrotechnologies of RAS (Orenburg)
L.V. Lizyrchik –
Gynecologist, Regional Clinical Hospital №2 Perinatal Centre (Orenburg); Research Scientist of Federal Research Center for Biological Systems and Agrotechnologies of RAS (Orenburg)
O.V. Marshinskaya –
Junior Research Scientist, Federal Research Center for Biological Systems and Agrotechnologies of RAS (Orenburg)
T.V. Kazakova –
Junior Research Scientist, Federal Research Center for Biological Systems and Agrotechnologies of RAS
Tobacco smoking is one of the most common habits in the world which harms people's health and society in general. Aimed: study the content of bioelements in the body of pregnant rats and their fetuses as a result of passive smoking. Methods. The study was conducted in the reproductive female Wistar rats (n=20). Animals were divided into two groups (control and expe-rimental groups). The control group was in the exposure chamber without tobacco smoke for 30 minutes 2 times a day. Animals of the experimental group were in the exposure chamber with tobacco smoke for 30 minutes 2 times a day. Pregnant rats were exposed in the following days. Every rat of the experimental group got 0.048 mg of nicotine, which is equivalent to the dose of the average smoker. The elemental composition of biological substrates (lung, liver, bone, placenta, fetus) was studied through the use of ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Results. Redistribution of chemical elements in the mother's body was found out. There was a statistically reliable decrease in the level of trace elements in the pulmonary tissue: chrome by 60 %, iodine by 35 %, cobalt by 36%, manganese by 50%; there was an increase in toxic elements such as arsenic by 37.5%, lead by 55% and cadmium by 46%. Copper and iron concentrations decreased by 7 % and 41.5 % in the liver tissue, respectively; there was an increase in strontium by 11.9 %. There was a decrease in the amount of nickel by 59 %, zinc by 45 %, silicon by 25.8 % and an increase in tin, aluminum, lead by 69.1 %, 42.6 %, 31.5 %, respectively, in the bone tissue. There was an increase in cadmium by 79.8 % and lead by 38.7 % in the placental samples of female rats. There was registered active accumulation of a number of chemical elements: manganese by 11.2 %, zinc by 15 %, selenium by 34.2 %, vanadium by 64%, boron by 54%, chromium by 75 %, iodine by 78.8 %, aluminum by 54%, cadmium by 77% and lead by 88.1 % in the body of the fetus. Conclusions. By summing the results, it is assumed a significant negative impact of passive smoking on the metabolism of trace elements and toxic elements in the mother-placenta-fetus system.
- Il'enkova N.A., Mazur YU.E. Rasprostranennost' upotrebleniya tabachnyh izdelij sredi detej i podrostkov: analiz vliyaniya tabakokureniya na sostoyanie zdorov'ya podrastayushchego pokoleniya // Voprosy sovremennoj pediatrii. 2011. № 5. S. 5–9.
- Andreeva T.I., Krasovskij K.S. Tabak i zdorov'e. Kiev. Poligrafcentr TAT. 2004. 223 s.
- Zhou Y.H., Mak Y.W., Ho G.W.K. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Exposure to Parental Secondhand Smoke at Home among Children in China: A Systematic Review // International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019. V. 16 (1). P. 107.
- Okoli C.T., Kelly T., Hahn E.J. Secondhand smoke and nicotine exposure: a brief review // Addictive Behaviors. 2007. V. 32(10). P. 1977–1988.
- Behera S.N., Xian H., Balasubramanian R. Human health risk associated with exposure to toxic elements in mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke // Science of the Total Environment. 2013. V. 472S. P. 947–956.
- Groner J.A., Huang H., Nicholson L., Kuck J., Boettner B., Bauer J.A. Secondhand smoke exposure and hair nicotine in children: age-dependent differences // Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2012. V. 14(9). P. 1105–1109.
- Zhao R., Wu Y., Zhao F., Lv Y., Huang D., Wei J., Ruan C., Huang M., Deng J., Huang D., Qiu X. The risk of missed abortion associated with the levels of tobacco, heavy metals and phthalate in hair of pregnant woman: A case control study in Chinese women // Medicine (Baltimore). 2017. № 96(51).
- Kuzina O.A., Vasilevskaya G.V., Avdeeva M.E. Ob aktual'nosti passivnogo kureniya pri beremennosti // Interaktivnaya nauka. 2016. № 1. S. 42–43.
- Reece S., Morgan C., Parascandola M., Siddiqi K. Secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy: a cross-sectional analysis of data from Demographic and Health Survey from 30 low-income and middle-income countries // Tobacco Control. 2018. V. 19.
- Mohamed N.N., Loy S.L., Lim P.Y., Al Mamun A., Jan Mohamed H.J. Early life secondhand smoke exposure assessed by hair nicotine biomarker may reduce children's neurodevelopment at 2years of age // Science of the Total Environmen. 2018. V. 610–611. P.147–153.
- Polanska K., Krol A., Merecz-Kot D., Ligocka D., Mikolajewska K., Mirabella F., Chiarotti F., Calamandrei G., Hanke W. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Pregnancy and Child Neurodevelopment // International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2017. V. 14(7). P. 796.
- Polańska K., Jurewicz J., Hanke W. Smoking and alcohol drinking during pregnancy as the risk factors for poor child neurodevelopment – A review of epidemiological studies // International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. 2015. V. 28(3). P. 419–43.
- Serdar M.A., Akin B.S., Razi C., Akin O., Tokgoz S., Kenar L., Aykut O. The correlation between smoking status of family members and concentrations of toxic trace elements in the hair of children // Biological Trace Element Research. 2012. V. 148(1). P. 11–17.
- Aprea M.C., Apostoli P., Bettinelli M., Lovreglio P., Negri S., Perbellini L., Perico A., Ricossa M.C., Salamon F., Scapellato M.L., Iavicoli I. Urinary levels of metal elements in the non-smoking general population in Italy: SIVR study 2012–2015 // Toxicology Letters. 2018. V. 298. P. 177–185.
- Wang B., Zhu Y., Pang Y., Xie J., Hao Y., Yan H., Li Z., Ye R. Indoor air pollution affects hypertension risk in rural women in Northern China by interfering with the uptake of metal elements: A preliminary cross-sectional study // Environmental Pollution. 2018. V. 240. P. 267–272.
- Rogan W.J., Paulson J.A., Baum C., Brock-Utne A.C., Brumberg H.L., Campbell C.C., Lanphear B.P., Lowry J.A., Osterhoudt K.C., Sandel M.T., Spanier A., Trasande L. Iodine deficiency, pollutant chemicals, and the thyroid: new information on an old problem // Pediatrics. 2014. V. 133(6). S. 1163–1166.
- Yang L., Tong E.K., Mao Z., Hu T.W. Exposure to secondhand smoke and associated factors among non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands in Sichuan province, China // Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 2010. V. 89(4). P. 549–557.
- Dursun A., Yurdakok K., Yalcin S.S., Tekinalp G., Aykut O., Orhan G., Morgil G.K. Maternal risk factors associated with lead, mercury and cadmium levels in umbilical cord blood, breast milk and newborn hair // The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. 2016. № 29(6). P. 954–961.
- Kulathunga M.R.D.L., Ayanka Wijayawardena M.A., Ravi Naidu, Wijeratne A.W. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka and the exposure to environmental chemicals: a review of literature // Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2019. P. 1–10.
- Notova S., Kireeva G., Zhukovskaya E., Grabeklis A., Kiyaeva E., Skalny A., Deryagina L. The influence of anthropogenous and geochemical environmental factors on the elementary status of children of Chelyabinsk Region // Human Ecology. 2017. № 11. P. 23–28.
- Jacob S., Goldenberg A., Pelletier J., Fonacier L., Usatine R., Silverberg N. Nickel Allergy and Our Children's Health: A Review of Indexed Cases and a View of Future Prevention // Pediatr Dermatol. 2015. V. 32 (6). P. 779–785.
- Afridi HI., Kazi TG., Brabazon D., Naher S. Association between essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair samples of smokers rheumatoid arthritis subjects // Science of the Total Environment. 2011. № 15. P. 93–100.
- Pappas R.S. Toxic elements in tobacco and in cigarette smoke: inflammation and sensitization // Metallomics. 2011. V. 3(11). P. 1181–1198.
- Martínez Mdel P., Bozzini C., Olivera M.I., Dmytrenko G., Conti M.I. Aluminum bone toxicity in immature rats exposed to simulated high altitude // Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism. 2011. V.29(5). P. 526–534.
- Zhang F., Sun X., Yu H., Yang X., Song M., Han Y., Li Y., Zhu Y. Effects of aluminum trichloride on the cartilage stimulatory growth factors in rats // Biometals. 2017. V.30(1). P. 143–150.
- Ahmad M. AL-Bashaireh., Linda G. Haddad, Michael Weaver, Debra Lynch Kelly, Xing Chengguo, Saunjoo Yoon. The Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Musculoskeletal Health: A Systematic Review // International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018. P. 107.