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Physical conditions on the early Earth, early Sun, cosmic rays and technologies of the first living systems

DOI 10.18127/j20700997-201905-07


M.V. Ragulskaya – Ph.D. (Phys.-Math.), Senior Research Scientist, Department of Solar Physics and Solar-Terrestrial Relations, Earth Institute Magnetism and Propagation of Radio Waves n. a. N.V. Pushkov RAS (Moscow, Troitsk)

The article discusses the physical conditions in the early solar system and on Earth and their impact on the emergence, selection and development of the first living systems. The purpose of the article is a review of the solar, cosmic and galactic factors, as well as the Earth’s magnetic field and other protective shells of our planet in the existence of the biosphere. These factors are usually not taken into account in a purely biological consideration of the origin of life and the development of early ecosystems.
The role of the dynamics of the young Sun, cosmic rays, magnetic fields and other protective shells of the Earth in the formation of the biosphere is considered. The “paradox of the young Sun” and the “geomagnetic paradox”, as well as the ways of their possible solution, are considered. Modern models of the origin of life are discussed, and it is noted that most of them are applicable not only to the Earth, but also to terrestrial planets and planets with an ice-covered surface over the oceans. Experiments on radiation exposure show the possibility of survival of symbiotic bacterial biosystems under the surface of Mars – up to 13 million years (in latent state), in meteorites – up to 3 million years. The selection of a single genetic code, ancient methods of long-term energy storage and adaptive technologies of the first living systems occurred under the influence of space and geophysical factors. It has been hypothesized that energy storage in polyphosphates could ensure the functioning of the primary biosphere in conditions of low luminosity of the young Sun.
Currently, the place of the search for life (in its bacterial form) has expanded significantly. The cradle of life can be both molecular galactic clouds and proto-planetary disks, and exo-planets, and volcanoes and oceans of the Earth, Mars and minor planets – satellites of giant planets, asteroids. Factors that significantly limit the development of life are the intensity of cosmic rays, radiation from the mother star and radiation from gas giant planets such as Jupiter. This question requires further experimental and theoretical study.

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