V.A. Bukhalev – Dr.Sc.(Eng.), Professor, JSC «MNITI» (Moscow)
V.A. Boldinov – Ph.D.(Eng.), Associate Professor, Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University)
A.B. Sukhachev – Dr.Sc.(Eng.), JSC «MNITI» (Moscow)
B.L. Shapiro – Deputy Head of Department of Research Division, JSC «MNITI» (Moscow)
The article examines the task of constructing optimal information-control algorithms for thermal imaging guidance systems unmanned aerial vehicles. Thermal imaging systems with correlation algorithms of information processing are a promising type of navigation and guidance systems of modern unmanned aerial vehicles.
The main problem is the presence in these systems of additive mixtures of useful signals and noise, the frequency spectra of which are close to the spectra of the useful signals themselves. The task of constructing optimal information-control algorithms is complicated by the fact that under conditions of low-frequency interference, the bandwidth of the developed optimal filter should be wider than the bandwidth of a traditional Kalman filter used in conditions of high-frequency interference.
In formulating the task have been set mathematical models of the flight path of an unmanned aircraft and its measurer of angular coordinates in the vertical plane as first order differential equations. The optimality criterion was set as the minimum of the control efficiency indicator, defined as the mathematical expectation of the sum of the squared deviations of the angles and angular velocities of the line of sight of the object and control losses when the unmanned aerial vehicle moves along the required trajectory.
Solving the problem in accordance with the «separation theorem» is reduced to solving two independent private tasks: determining the optimal deterministic control for an object by linear-quadratic quality indicator with subsequent replacement phase coordinates vector on its evaluation and determination optimal estimation phase coordinates vector stochastic system, observed in an additive mixture with low-frequency noise.
When solving the first private problem, an control optimal law for an unmanned aerial vehicle guidance system developed, based on the method of constructing optimal control algorithms to linear stochastic systems by the linear-quadratic criterion.
The solution to the second particular problem become to obtain the optimal algorithm for filtering low-frequency additive noise, which is described by equations, that realizing the Bryson–Johansen filter. The extension of the transmission strip in the filter is realized by performing the operation «whitening noise interference». The physical meaning of the operation is in the passing measure signal through the first order link.
As a result of solving the assigned task, the authors developed an optimal information-control algorithm for an unmanned aerial vehicle, including the control optimal law and the filtering optimal algorithm, which are connected with each other by cross-direct and feedback connections. The approximately-optimal algorithm obtained from the optimal one by replacing the differential equations for the coefficients with their settled values calculated by algebraic formulas derived from differential equations.
The expressions for the approximately-optimal information control algorithm were obtained for the settled mode in assumption that the closed system describing the guidance process is stable. The analysis of the exploring system stability performed by the authors proved the stable regime existence. As a result of the analysing system stability, the minimal coefficients values determined at which the system is stable. The simulation modeling results illustrating the operation of the algorithm are presented. Directions of further research are indicated.
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